• [DOI] C. Zander, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and L. Thomas, “Copying can be good: how instructors use imitation in teaching programming,” in Proceedings of the 2019 acm conference on innovation and technology in computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2019, p. 450–456.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{zander:2019a,
    Abstract = {Students' "copying" is often considered negatively. In this paper, we explore the ways in which copying and imitation are used positively by computing instructors in their teaching. We found that instructors expect their students to use these strategies in many different contexts and at many different levels.},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Zander, Carol and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda},
    Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2019 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education},
    Date-Added = {2020-08-29 11:52:53 +0200},
    Date-Modified = {2020-08-29 11:53:36 +0200},
    Doi = {10.1145/3304221.3319783},
    Isbn = {9781450368957},
    Keywords = {mimicry, copying, imitation},
    Location = {Aberdeen, Scotland Uk},
    Numpages = {7},
    Pages = {450--456},
    Publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    Series = {ITiCSE '19},
    Title = {Copying Can Be Good: How Instructors Use Imitation in Teaching Programming},
    Url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3304221.3319783},
    Year = {2019},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3304221.3319783}}
  • L. Thomas, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and C. Zander, “In the liminal space: software design as a threshold skill,” Practice and evidence of the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education, vol. 12, iss. 2, 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{thomas.2015.a,
    Author = {Thomas, Lynda and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Zander, Carol},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-08-29 11:59:36 +0200},
    Journal = {Practice and Evidence of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education},
    Keywords = {threshold skills},
    Number = {2},
    Title = {In the Liminal Space: software design as a threshold skill},
    Volume = {12},
    Year = {2017},
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  • L. Thomas, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and C. Zander, “Graduating students’ designs: through a phenomenographic lens,” in Proceeding of the tenth annual conference on international computing education research, 2014, p. 91–98.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{thomas.2014.a,
    Author = {Thomas, Lynda and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {Proceeding of the Tenth Annual Conference on International Computing Education Research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Pages = {91--98},
    Publisher = {ACM Press},
    Title = {Graduating Students' Designs: through a phenomenographic lens},
    Year = {2014}}
  • [DOI] K. Sanders, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “Threshold concepts and threshold skills in computing,” in Proceedings of the ninth annual international conference on international computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2012, p. 23–30.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{sanders.2012.a,
    Acmid = {2361283},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Sanders, Kate and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {Proceedings of the ninth annual international conference on International computing education research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {10.1145/2361276.2361283},
    Isbn = {978-1-4503-1604-0},
    Keywords = {threshold concepts, threshold skills},
    Location = {Auckland, New Zealand},
    Numpages = {8},
    Pages = {23--30},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Series = {ICER '12},
    Title = {Threshold concepts and threshold skills in computing},
    Url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2361276.2361283},
    Year = {2012},
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    Bdsk-Url-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2361276.2361283}}
  • [DOI] C. Zander, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, K. Sanders, J. E. Moström, and L. Thomas, “Self-directed learning: stories from industry,” in Proceedings of the 12th koli calling international conference on computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2012, p. 111–117.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{zander.2012.a,
    Acmid = {2401810},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Zander, Carol and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Sanders, Kate and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Thomas, Lynda},
    Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {10.1145/2401796.2401810},
    Isbn = {978-1-4503-1795-5},
    Keywords = {industry perspective, informal learning, self-directed learning},
    Location = {Koli, Finland},
    Numpages = {7},
    Pages = {111--117},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Series = {Koli Calling '12},
    Title = {Self-directed learning: stories from industry},
    Url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2401796.2401810},
    Year = {2012},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2401796.2401810},
    Bdsk-Url-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2401796.2401810}}
  • J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, K. Sanders, J. E. Moström, and L. Thomas, “Self-directed learning: stories from industry,” in Koli calling ’12: proceedings of the 12th koli calling international conference on computing education research, 2012, p. 111–117.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{zander.2012.b,
    Author = {Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Sanders, Kate and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Thomas, Lynda},
    Booktitle = {Koli Calling '12: Proceedings of the 12th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Pages = {111--117},
    Title = {Self-Directed Learning: stories from industry},
    Year = {2012}}
  • J. E. Moström, “A study of student problem in learning to program,” Ph.D. Thesis PhD Thesis, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{mostrom.2011.d,
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Isbn = {978-91-7459-293-1},
    Issn = {0348-0542},
    Month = {November},
    School = {Ume{\aa} University},
    Title = {A Study of Student Problem in Learning to Program},
    Type = {Ph.D. Thesis},
    Year = {2011}}
  • J. E. Moström, “Learning concurrency – what’s the problem?,” , 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{mostrom.2011.a,
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Title = {Learning concurrency -- what's the problem?},
    Year = {2011}}
  • J. E. Moström, “Students experience of learning concurrency,” , 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{mostrom.2011.b,
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Title = {Students experience of learning concurrency},
    Year = {2011}}
  • [DOI] J. E. Moström, “Student views on learning concurrency,” in Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2011, p. 141–142.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mostrom.2011.c,
    Abstract = {We interviewed eight students to better understand what kind of difficulties students have when learning concurrent programming. According to these interviews students does not consider concurrency to be radically more difficult than other Computer Science subjects - something that is in contrast to many research papers. Instead the students found concurrency to be an interesting and fun subject that they considered to be approximately equal in difficulty to other subjects. For some, the added complexity only acted as inspiring challenge.},
    Acmid = {2016941},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik},
    Booktitle = {Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on Computing education research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2016911.2016941},
    Isbn = {978-1-4503-0829-8},
    Keywords = {concurrency, student experience},
    Location = {Providence, Rhode Island, USA},
    Numpages = {2},
    Pages = {141--142},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Series = {ICER '11},
    Title = {Student views on learning concurrency},
    Url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2016911.2016941},
    Year = {2011},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2016911.2016941}}
  • [DOI] R. McCartney, A. Eckerdal, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “Computing students learning computing informally,” in Proceedings of the 10th koli calling international conference on computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2010, p. 43–48.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mccartney.2010.a,
    Abstract = {In this paper we present background and early results from an investigation of how computing students learn computer science topics through informal means, that is, outside of organized classes. We provide some overall perspective by discussing the variety of research areas that fall under the general "informal learning" name. From there we propose specific research questions that concern what the students learn, what resources they bring to bear, what strategies they employ, and how they evaluate their progress.
    Preliminary results indicate that students primarily learn specific technologies, and that both their motivation and evaluation are closely tied to projects (at school, work, or home).},
    Acmid = {1930470},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {McCartney, Robert and Eckerdal, Anna and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1930464.1930470},
    Isbn = {978-1-4503-0520-4},
    Keywords = {informal learning, self-directed learning},
    Location = {Berlin, Germany},
    Numpages = {6},
    Pages = {43--48},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Series = {Koli Calling '10},
    Title = {Computing students learning computing informally},
    Url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1930464.1930470},
    Year = {2010},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1930464.1930470}}
  • L. Thomas, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and C. Zander, “Threshold concepts in computer science: an ongoing empirical investigation,” , J. H. F. Meyer, R. Land, and C. Baillie, Eds., Sense publishers, 2010, vol. 42, p. 241–258.
    [Bibtex]
    @inbook{thomas.2010.a,
    Author = {Thomas, Lynda and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Zander, Carol},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Editor = {Meyer, Jan H.F and Land, Ray and Baillie, Caroline},
    Keywords = {treshold concepts},
    Pages = {241--258},
    Publisher = {Sense Publishers},
    Series = {EDUCATIONAL FUTURES: RETHINKING THEORY AND PRACTICE},
    Title = {Threshold Concepts in Computer Science: An Ongoing Empirical Investigation},
    Volume = {42},
    Year = {2010},
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  • A. Berglund, A. Eckerdal, A. Pears, P. East, P. Kinnunen, L. Malmi, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, L. Murphy, M. Ratcliffe, C. Schulte, B. Simon, I. Stamouli, and L. Thomas, “Learning computer science: perceptions, actions and roles,” European journal of engineering education, vol. 34, iss. 4, p. 327–338, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{berglund.2009.a,
    Abstract = {This phenomenographic study opens the classroom door to investigate teachers' experiences of students learning difficult computing topics. Three distinct themes are identified and analysed. Why, do students succeed, or fail, to learn these concepts? What actions do teachers perceive will ameliorate the difficulties facing students? Who is responsible, and for for what, in the learning situation?
    Theoretical work on threshold concepts and conceptual change deals with mechanisms and processes associated with learning difficult material (Meyer and R.Land 2005, Entwistle 2007). With this work as a background we concentrate on the perceptions of teachers. Where do teachers feel that the difficulties lie when studying the troublesome knowledge in computing? Student and teacher-centric views of teaching reported in other literature are also to be seen in our results. The first two categories in the ''what'' and ''who'' themes are teachercentric. Higher level categories in all themes show increasingly learner centered conceptions of the instructional role. However, the nature of the categories in the ''why'' theme reveals a new dimension dealing with teacher beliefs specific to the nature of troublesome knowledge in computing.
    A number of prior studies in tertiary teaching concentrate on approaches to teaching (Trigwell and Prosser 2004), and attitudes to scholarship of teaching and learning (Ashwin and Trigwell 2004). Our focus on learning of difficult topics extends this work, investigating teacher conceptions of causality in relation to learning difficulties. We argue that teacher conceptions of enabling factors, for learning difficult computing topics, can act to limit the nature and scope of academics' pedagogical responses. Improved awareness of teacher's beliefs regarding student learning difficulties both extends and complements existing efforts to develop a more student-centered computing pedagogy.
    },
    Annote = {PhICER artikeln med arnold etc},
    Author = {Berglund, Anders and Eckerdal, Anna and Pears, Arnold and East, Philip and Kinnunen, P{\"a}ivi and Malmi, Lauri and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Murphy, Laurie and Ratcliffe, Mark and Schulte, Carsten and Simon, Beth and Stamouli, Ioanna and Thomas, Lynda},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Journal = {European Journal of Engineering Education},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {327--338},
    Publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
    Title = {Learning Computer Science: Perceptions, Actions and Roles},
    Volume = {34},
    Year = {2009},
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  • R. McCartney, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “Liminal spaces and learning computing,” European journal of engineering education, vol. 34, iss. 4, pp. 383-391, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{mccartney.2009.a,
    Abstract = {'Threshold concepts' are concepts that, among other things, transform the way a student looks at a discipline. Although the term 'threshold' might suggest that the transformation occurs at a specific point in time, an 'aha' moment, it seems more common (at least in computing) that a longer time period is required. This time period is referred to as the 'liminal space'. In this paper, we summarise our findings concerning how computing students experience the liminal space and discuss how this might affect teaching. Most of our findings so far relate to software engineering. As it is likely that similar liminal spaces occur in other engineering disciplines, these findings have relevance across engineering education.},
    Author = {McCartney, Robert and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Journal = {European Journal of Engineering Education},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {383-391},
    Publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
    Title = {Liminal Spaces and Learning Computing},
    Url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/03043790902989580},
    Volume = {34},
    Year = {2009},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/03043790902989580}}
  • [DOI] J. E. Moström, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, K. Sanders, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “Computer science student transformations: changes and causes,” in Iticse ’09: proceedings of the 14th annual acm sigcse conference on innovation and technology in computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2009, p. 181–185.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mostrom.2009.a,
    Abstract = {We examine the transformations experienced by students during their study of computing. These transformations led to changes in the students' perceptions of computer science, in their sense of identity as computer scientists, their behavior and their confidence. The changes are caused by learning or using particular concepts, and often associated with writing computer programs, learning new programming languages, or interacting with peers.},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {ITiCSE '09: Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1562877.1562935},
    Isbn = {978-1-60558-381-5},
    Location = {Paris, France},
    Pages = {181--185},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Computer science student transformations: changes and causes},
    Year = {2009},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1562877.1562935}}
  • [DOI] C. Zander, J. Boustedt, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and L. Thomas, “Student transformations: are they computer scientists yet?,” in Proceedings of the fifth international workshop on computing education research workshop, New York, NY, USA, 2009, p. 129–140.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{zander.2009.a,
    Abstract = {We examine the changes in the ways computing students view their field as they learn, as reported by the students themselves in short written biographies. In many ways, these changes result in students thinking and acting more like computer scientists and identifying more with the computing community. Most of the changes are associated with programming and software engineering, rather than theoretical computer science, however.},
    Acmid = {1584337},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Zander, Carol and Boustedt, Jonas and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda},
    Booktitle = {Proceedings of the fifth International workshop on Computing education research workshop},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {10.1145/1584322.1584337},
    Isbn = {978-1-60558-615-1},
    Keywords = {student biographies, threshold concepts, transformations},
    Location = {Berkeley, CA, USA},
    Numpages = {12},
    Pages = {129--140},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Student transformations: are they computer scientists yet?},
    Url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1584322.1584337},
    Year = {2009},
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  • [DOI] J. Börstler, H. B. Christensen, J. Bennedsen, M. Nordström, L. Kallin Westin, J. E. Moström, and M. E. Caspersen, “Evaluating oo example programs for cs1,” in Iticse ’08: proceedings of the 13th annual conference on innovation and technology in computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2008, p. 47–52.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{borstler.2008.a,
    Abstract = {Example programs play an important role in learning to program. They work as templates, guidelines, and inspiration for learners when developing their own programs. It is therefore important to provide learners with high quality examples. In this paper, we discuss properties of example programs that might affect the teaching and learning of object-oriented programming. Furthermore, we present an evaluation instrument for example programs and report on initial experiences of its application to a selection of examples from popular introductory programming textbooks.
    },
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {B{\"o}rstler, J{\"u}rgen and Christensen, Henrik B. and Bennedsen, Jens and Nordstr{\"o}m, Marie and Kallin Westin, Lena and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Caspersen, Michael E.},
    Booktitle = {ITiCSE '08: Proceedings of the 13th annual conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1384271.1384286},
    Isbn = {978-1-60558-078-4},
    Location = {Madrid, Spain},
    Pages = {47--52},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Evaluating OO example programs for CS1},
    Year = {2008},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1384271.1384286}}
  • J. Börstler, M. Nordström, L. Kallin Westin, J. E. Moström, and J. Eliasson, “Transitioning to oop – a never ending story,” in Reflections on the teaching of programming, M. Kölling, J. Bennedsen, and M. E. Caspersen, Eds., Springer verlag, 2008, p. 80–97.
    [Bibtex]
    @inbook{borstler.2008.b,
    Abstract = {Changing the introductory programming course from a traditional imperative model to an object oriented model is not simply a matter of changing compilers and syntax. It requires a profound change in course materials and teaching approach to be successful. We have been working with this transition for almost ten years and have realized that teaching object-oriented programming is not as simple or ``natural'' as some proponents claim. In fact, it has proven difficult to convey to the students the advantages and methodologies associated with object-oriented programming. To help ourselves and others in a transition like this we have developed a number of ``course design principles'' as well as teaching methods and examples that have proven to have positive influence on student learning outcome.},
    Author = {B{\"o}rstler, J{\"u}rgen and Nordstr{\"o}m, Marie and Kallin Westin, Lena and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Eliasson, Johan},
    Booktitle = {Reflections on the teaching of programming},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Editor = {K{\"o}lling, Michael and Bennedsen, Jens and Caspersen, Michael E.},
    Pages = {80--97},
    Publisher = {Springer Verlag},
    Title = {Transitioning to OOP - A Never Ending Story},
    Year = {2008},
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  • J. Börstler, M. Nordström, L. Kallin Westin, J. E. Moström, H. B. Christensen, and J. Bennedsen, “An evaluation instrument for object-oriented example programs for novices,” Umeå University, UMINF 08.09, 2008.
    [Bibtex]
    @techreport{borstler.2008.c,
    Abstract = {Examples are important tools for programming education. In this paper, we investigate desirable properties of programming examples from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. We argue that some cognitive aspects of example programs are "caught" by common software measures, but they are not sufficient to capture all important aspects of understandability. We propose a framework for measuring the understandability of example programs that also considers factors related to the usage context of examples. Research shows that examples play an important role for cognitive skill acquisition. Students as well as teachers rank examples as important resources for learning to program.
    Students use examples as templates for their work. Therefore examples must be consistent with the principles and rules of the topics we are teaching; free of any undesirable properties or behaviour. By repeatedly exposing students to "exemplary" examples, desirable properties are reinforced many times. Students will eventually recognize patterns of "good" design, gaining experience in telling desirable from undesirable properties. We therefore need to be able to tell apart "good" and "bad" examples. To do so objectively and consistently requires some kind of measurement instrument.
    In this paper, we describe the development and initial validation of an evaluation instrument for example programs, based on three aspects of quality; technical quality, object-oriented quality, and didactical quality. Validation was performed by six experienced educators using examples from popular introductory programming textbooks.
    Results show that the instrument helps indicating particular strengths and weaknesses of example programs. In all but one example program, we identified aspects that need to be improved. However, inter-rater agreement is low. The instrument can therefore not be considered reliable enough for evaluations on a larger scale. Further work is necessary to fine-tune the instrument and provide guidance for its usage.},
    Author = {B{\"o}rstler, J{\"u}rgen and Nordstr{\"o}m, Marie and Kallin Westin, Lena and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Christensen, Henrik B. and Bennedsen, Jens},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Institution = {Ume{\aa} University},
    Number = {UMINF 08.09},
    Title = {An Evaluation Instrument for Object-Oriented Example Programs for Novices},
    Year = {2008},
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  • [DOI] J. E. Moström, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, K. Sanders, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “Concrete examples of abstraction as manifested in students’ transformative experiences,” in Icer ’08: proceeding of the fourth international workshop on computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2008, p. 125–136.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mostrom.2008.a,
    Abstract = {This paper examines transformational learning experiences of computing students as a way to better understand threshold concepts in computing. From empirical evidence we found that students often describe transformative experiences as learning situations in which they were led to use various kinds of abstraction, for example modularity, data abstraction, inheritance, polymorphism, reuse, design patterns, and complexity. Some students describe an abstract concept as coming first, and then needing to be made concrete though application; others describe transformations in which they learn the advantages of these abstract concepts from their experience of not using them. Abstraction is certainly of central importance in computer science. It appears, however, from our students' descriptions of transformative experiences, that abstraction per se is not a threshold, but that particular concepts in which abstraction is paramount exhibit the characteristics of threshold concepts.
    },
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {ICER '08: Proceeding of the Fourth international Workshop on Computing Education Research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1404520.1404533},
    Isbn = {978-1-60558-216-0},
    Location = {Sydney, Australia},
    Pages = {125--136},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Concrete examples of abstraction as manifested in students' transformative experiences},
    Year = {2008},
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  • [DOI] K. Sanders, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “Student understanding of object-oriented programming as expressed in concept maps,” in Sigcse ’08: proceedings of the 39th sigcse technical symposium on computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2008, p. 332–336.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{sanders.2008.a,
    Abstract = {In this paper, we present the results of an experiment in which we sought to elicit students' understanding of object-oriented (OO) concepts using concept maps. Our analysis confirmed earlier research indicating that students do not have a firm grasp on the distinction between ``class'' and ``instance.'' Unlike earlier research, we found that our students generally connect classes with both data and behavior. Students rarely included any mention of the hardware/software context of programs, their users, or their real-world domains. Students do mention inheritance, but not encapsulation or abstraction. And the picture they draw of OO is a static one: we found nothing that could be construed as referring to interaction among ob jects in a program. We then discuss the implications for teaching introductory OO programming.
    },
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Sanders, Kate and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {SIGCSE '08: Proceedings of the 39th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352135.1352251},
    Isbn = {978-1-59593-799-5},
    Location = {Portland, OR, USA},
    Pages = {332--336},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Rating = {5},
    Title = {Student understanding of object-oriented programming as expressed in concept maps},
    Year = {2008},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352135.1352251}}
  • [DOI] K. Sanders, B. Richards, J. E. Moström, V. Almstrum, S. Edwards, S. Fincher, K. Gunion, M. Hall, B. Hanks, S. Lonergan, R. McCartney, B. Morrison, J. Spacco, and L. Thomas, “Dcer: sharing empirical computer science education data,” in Icer ’08: proceeding of the fourth international workshop on computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2008, p. 137–148.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{sanders.2008.b,
    Abstract = {Data sharing is common, and sometimes even required, in other disciplines. Creating a mechanism for data sharing in computer science education research will benefit both individual researchers and the community. While it is easy to say that data sharing is desirable, it is much more difficult to make it a practical reality.
    This paper reports on an examination of the issues involved by researchers who gathered at a one-day NSF-sponsored workshop held in connection with SIGCSE 2008. We outline the advantages and challenges of developing a repository, show how the challenges have been addressed by repositories in other fields, describe a possible prototype system for empirical computer science education data, and discuss how to move the project forward.},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Sanders, Kate and Richards, Brad and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Almstrum, Vicki and Edwards, Stephen and Fincher, Sally and Gunion, Kat and Hall, Mark and Hanks, Brian and Lonergan, Stephen and McCartney, Robert and Morrison, Briana and Spacco, Jaime and Thomas, Lynda},
    Booktitle = {ICER '08: Proceeding of the Fourth international Workshop on Computing Education Research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1404520.1404534},
    Isbn = {978-1-60558-216-0},
    Location = {Sydney, Australia},
    Pages = {137--148},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {DCER: sharing empirical computer science education data},
    Year = {2008},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1404520.1404534}}
  • C. Zander, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, M. Ratcliffe, and K. Sanders, “Threshold concepts in computer science: a multi-national empirical investigation,” in Threshold concepts within the disciplines, R. Land, H. F. Meyer, and J. Smith, Eds., Sense publishers, 2008.
    [Bibtex]
    @incollection{zander.2008.a,
    Author = {Zander, Carol and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Ratcliffe, Mark and Sanders, Kate},
    Booktitle = {Threshold Concepts within the disciplines},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Editor = {Land, Ray and Meyer, H.F and Smith, Jan},
    Keywords = {threshold concepts},
    Publisher = {Sense Publishers},
    Title = {Threshold Concepts in Computer Science: A Multi-National Empirical Investigation},
    Year = {2008},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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}}
  • R. Adams, S. Fincher, A. Pears, J. Börstler, J. Boustedt, P. Dalenius, G. Eken, T. Heyer, A. Jacobsson, V. Lindberg, B. Molin, J. E. Moström, and M. Wiggberg, “What is the word for ”engineering” in swedish: swedish students conceptions of their discipline,” Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, 2007-018, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @techreport{adams.2007.a,
    Author = {Adams, Robin and Fincher, Sally and Pears, Arnold and B{\"o}rstler, J{\"u}rgen and Boustedt, Jonas and Dalenius, Peter and Eken, Gunilla and Heyer, Tim and Jacobsson, Andreas and Lindberg, Vanja and Molin, Bengt and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Wiggberg, Mattias},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Institution = {Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University},
    Keywords = {engineering},
    Number = {2007-018},
    Rating = {1},
    Title = {What is the Word for ''Engineering'' in Swedish: Swedish Students Conceptions of their Discipline},
    Year = {2007},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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}}
  • [DOI] J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, M. Ratcliffe, K. Sanders, and C. Zander, “Threshold concepts in computer science: do they exist and are they useful?,” in Sigcse ’07: proceedings of the 38th sigcse technical symposium on computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2007, p. 504–508.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{boustedt.2007.a,
    Abstract = {Yes and yes.
    We are currently undertaking an empirical investigation of
    ``Threshold Concepts'' in Computer Science, with input from both instructors and students. We have found good empirical evidence that at least two concepts---Object-oriented programming and pointers---are Threshold Concepts, and that there are potentially many more others.
    In this paper, we present results gathered using various experimental techniques, and discuss how Threshold Concepts can affect the learning process. },
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Ratcliffe, Mark and Sanders, Kate and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {SIGCSE '07: Proceedings of the 38th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1227310.1227482},
    Isbn = {1-59593-361-1},
    Location = {Covington, Kentucky, USA},
    Pages = {504--508},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Threshold concepts in computer science: do they exist and are they useful?},
    Year = {2007},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1227310.1227482}}
  • [DOI] A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, L. Thomas, and C. Zander, “From limen to lumen: computing students in liminal spaces,” in Icer ’07: proceedings of the third international workshop on computing education research, New York, NY, USA, 2007, p. 123–132.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{eckerdal.2007.a,
    Abstract = {This paper is part of an ongoing series of projects in which we are investigating ``threshold concepts'': concepts that, among other things, transforms the way a student looks as the discipline and are often troublesome to learn. The word ``threshold'' might imply that students cross the threshold in a single ``aha'' moment, but often they seem to take longer. Meyer and Land introduce the term ``liminal space'' for the transitional period between beginning to learn a concept and fully mastering it.
    Based on in-depth interviews with graduating seniors, we found that the liminal space can provide a useful metaphor for the concept learning process. In addition to observing the standard features of liminal spaces, we have identified some that may be specific to computing, specifically those relating to levels of abstraction.
    },
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Annote = {This paper is part of an ongoing series of projects in which we are investigating ``threshold concepts'': concepts that, among other things, transforms the way a student looks as the discipline and are often troublesome to learn. The word ``threshold'' might imply that students cross the threshold in a single ``aha'' moment, but often they seem to take longer. Meyer and Land introduce the term ``liminal space'' for the transitional period between beginning to learn a concept and fully mastering it.
    Based on in-depth interviews with graduating seniors, we found that the liminal space can provide a useful metaphor for the concept learning process. In addition to observing the standard features of liminal spaces, we have identified some that may be specific to computing, specifically those relating to levels of abstraction.
    },
    Author = {Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {ICER '07: Proceedings of the third international workshop on Computing education research},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1288580.1288597},
    Isbn = {978-1-59593-841-1},
    Location = {Atlanta, Georgia, USA},
    Pages = {123--132},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {From Limen to Lumen: computing students in liminal spaces},
    Year = {2007},
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    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1288580.1288597}}
  • [DOI] R. McCartney, A. Eckerdal, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and C. Zander, “Successful students’ strategies for getting unstuck,” in Iticse ’07: proceedings of the 12th annual sigcse conference on innovation and technology in computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2007, p. 156–160.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mccartney.2007.a,
    Abstract = {Students often ``get stuck'' when trying to learn new computing concepts and skills. In this paper, we present and categorize strategies that successful students found helpful in getting unstuck. We found that the students reported using a broad range of strategies, and that these strategies fall into a number of recognizably different categories.
    },
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {McCartney, Robert and Eckerdal, Anna and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {ITiCSE '07: Proceedings of the 12th annual SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1268784.1268831},
    Isbn = {978-1-59593-610-3},
    Location = {Dundee, Scotland},
    Pages = {156--160},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Successful students' strategies for getting unstuck},
    Year = {2007},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1268784.1268831}}
  • A. Pears, A. Berglund, A. Eckerdal, P. East, P. Kinnunen, L. Malmi, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, L. Murphy, M. B. Ratcliffe, C. Schulte, B. Simon, I. Stamouli, and L. Thomas, “What’s the problem? teachers’ experience of student learning successes and failures,” in Seventh baltic sea conference on computing education research (koli calling 2007), Koli National Park, Finland, 2007, p. 207–211.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{pears.2007.a,
    Address = {Koli National Park, Finland},
    Author = {Pears, Arnold and Berglund, Anders and Eckerdal, Anna and East, Philip and Kinnunen, P{\"a}ivi and Malmi, Lauri and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Murphy, Laurie and Ratcliffe, Mark Bartley and Schulte, Carsten and Simon, Beth and Stamouli, Ioanna and Thomas, Lynda},
    Booktitle = {Seventh Baltic Sea Conference on Computing Education Research (Koli Calling 2007)},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Editor = {Lister, Raymond and Simon},
    Pages = {207--211},
    Publisher = {ACS},
    Series = {CRPIT},
    Title = {What's the problem? Teachers' experience of student learning successes and failures},
    Volume = {88},
    Year = {2007},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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}}
  • [DOI] B. Simon, S. Fitzgerald, R. McCauley, S. Haller, J. Hamer, B. Hanks, M. T. Helmick, J. E. Moström, J. Sheard, and L. Thomas, “Debugging assistance for novices: a video repository,” Sigcse bulletin, vol. 39, iss. 4, p. 137–151, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{simon.2007.a,
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Simon, Beth and Fitzgerald, Sue and McCauley, Ren{\'e}e and Haller, Susan and Hamer, John and Hanks, Brian and Helmick, Michael T. and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sheard, Judy and Thomas, Lynda},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1345375.1345437},
    Issn = {0097-8418},
    Journal = {SIGCSE Bulletin},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {137--151},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Debugging assistance for novices: a video repository},
    Volume = {39},
    Year = {2007},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1345375.1345437}}
  • [DOI] A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, M. Ratcliffe, and C. Zander, “Can graduating students design software systems?,” in Sigcse ’06: proceedings of the 37th sigcse technical symposium on computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2006, p. 403–407.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{eckerdal.2006.a,
    Abstract = {This paper examines software designs produced by students nearing completion of their Computer Science degrees. The results of this multi-national, multi-institutional experiment present some interesting implications for educators.},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Ratcliffe, Mark and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {SIGCSE '06: Proceedings of the 37th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1121341.1121468},
    Isbn = {1-59593-259-3},
    Location = {Houston, Texas, USA},
    Pages = {403--407},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Can graduating students design software systems?},
    Year = {2006},
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  • [DOI] A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, M. Ratcliffe, K. Sanders, and C. Zander, “Putting threshold concepts into context in computer science education,” in Iticse ’06: proceedings of the 11th annual sigcse conference on innovation and technology in computer science education, New York, NY, USA, 2006, p. 103–107.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{eckerdal.2006.b,
    Abstract = {This paper describes Threshold Concepts, a theory of learning that distinguishes core concepts whose characteristics can make them troublesome in learning. With an eye to applying this theory in computer science, we consider this notion in the context of related topics in computer science education.discipline, but are also places in the curriculum where students get stuck, unable to make progress until they become unstuck.},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Annote = {This paper describes Threshold Concepts, a theory of learning that distinguishes core concepts whose characteristics can make them troublesome in learning. With an eye to applying this theory in computer science, we consider this notion in the context of related topics in computer science education.discipline, but are also places in the curriculum where students get stuck, unable to make progress until they become unstuck.},
    Author = {Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Ratcliffe, Mark and Sanders, Kate and Zander, Carol},
    Booktitle = {ITICSE '06: Proceedings of the 11th annual SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1140124.1140154},
    Isbn = {1-59593-055-8},
    Location = {Bologna, Italy},
    Pages = {103--107},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {Putting threshold concepts into context in computer science education},
    Year = {2006},
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  • A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, M. Ratcliffe, and C. Zander, “Categorizing student software designs, methods, results, and implications,” Computer science education, vol. 16, iss. 3, p. 197–209, 2006.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{eckerdal.2006.c,
    Abstract = {This paper examines the problem of studying and comparing student software designs. We propose semantic categorization as a way to organize widely varying data items. We describe how this was used to organize a particular multi-national multi-institutional dataset, and present the results of this analysis: most students are unable to effectively design software. We examine how these designs vary with different academic and demographic factors, and discuss the implications of this work on both education and education research. },
    Author = {Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Ratcliffe, Mark and Zander, Carol},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Journal = {Computer Science Education},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {197--209},
    Title = {Categorizing student software designs, methods, results, and implications},
    Volume = {16},
    Year = {2006},
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  • A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, M. Ratcliffe, and C. Zander, “Comparing student software designs using semantic categorization.” 2005, p. 57–64.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{eckerdal.2005.a,
    Abstract = {This paper examines the problem of studying and comparing student software designs. We propose semantic categorization as a way to organize widely varying data items. We describe how this was used to organize a particular multi-national multi-institutional dataset, and discuss the implications of using such techniques for education researchers.},
    Author = {Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Ratcliffe, Mark and Zander, Carol},
    Crossref = {koli.2005.a},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Pages = {57--64},
    Publisher = {Turku Centre for Computer Science},
    Title = {Comparing Student Software Designs Using Semantic Categorization},
    Year = {2005}}
  • R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and O. Seppälä, “Take note: the effectiveness of novice programmers’ annotations on examinations,” Informatics in education, vol. 4, iss. 1, p. 69–86, 2005.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{mccartney.2005.a,
    Author = {McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Sepp{\"a}l{\"a}, Otto},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Journal = {Informatics in Education},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {69--86},
    Publisher = {Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences},
    Title = {Take Note: the Effectiveness of Novice Programmers' Annotations on Examinations},
    Volume = {4},
    Year = {2005},
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  • J. Tenenberg, S. Fincher, K. Blaha, D. Bouvier, T. Chen, D. Chinn, S. Cooper, A. Eckerdal, H. Johnson, R. McCartney, A. Monge, J. E. Moström, M. Petre, K. Powers, M. Ratcliffe, A. Robins, D. Sanders, L. Shwartzman, B. Simon, C. Stoker, A. Elliot Tew, and T. VanDeGrift, “Students designing software: a multi-national, multi-institutional study,” Informatics in education, vol. 4, iss. 1, p. 143–162, 2005.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{tenenberg.2005.a,
    Abstract = {This paper reports a multi-national, multi-institutional study to investigate Computer Science students' understanding of software design and software design criteria. Student participants were recruited from two groups: students early in their degree studies and students completing their Bachelor degrees. Computer Science educators were also recruited as a comparison group. The study, including over 300 participants from 21 institutions in 4 countries, aimed to understand characteristics of student-generated software designs, to investigate student recognition of requirement ambiguities, and to elicit students' valuation of key design criteria. The results indicate that with increases in education, students use fewer textual design notations and more graphical and standardized notations and that they become more aware of ambiguous problem specifications. Yet increased educational attainment has little effect on students' valuation of key design characteristics.},
    Author = {Tenenberg, Josh and Fincher, Sally and Blaha, Ken and Bouvier, Dennis and Chen, Tzu-Yi and Chinn, Donald and Cooper, Stephen and Eckerdal, Anna and Johnson, Hubert and McCartney, Robert and Monge, Alvaro and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Petre, Marian and Powers, Kris and Ratcliffe, Mark and Robins, Anthony and Sanders, Dean and Shwartzman, Leslie and Simon, Beth and Stoker, Carol and Elliot Tew, Allison and VanDeGrift, Tammy},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Journal = {Informatics in Education},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {143--162},
    Title = {Students designing software: a multi-national, multi-institutional study},
    Volume = {4},
    Year = {2005},
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  • [DOI] R. Lister, E. S. Adams, S. Fitzgerald, W. Fone, J. Hamer, M. Lindholm, R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, O. Seppälä, B. Simon, and L. Thomas, “A multi-national study of reading and tracing skills in novice programmers,” Sigcse bulletin, vol. 36, p. 119–150, 2004.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{lister.2004.a,
    Abstract = {A study by a ITiCSE 2001 working group ('the McCracken Group') established that many students do not know how to program at the conclusion of their introductory courses. A popular explanation for this incapacity is that the students lack the ability to problem-solve. That is, they lack the ability to take a problem description, decompose it into sub-problems and implement them, then assemble the pieces into a complete solution. An alternative explanation is that many students have a fragile grasp of both basic programming principles and the ability to systematically carry out routine programming tasks, such as tracing (or 'desk checking') through code. This ITiCSE 2004 working group studied the alternative explanation, by testing students from seven countries, in two ways. First, students were tested on their ability to predict the outcome of executing a short piece of code. Second, students were tested on their ability, when given the desired function of short piece of near-complete code, to select the correct completion of the code from a small set of possibilities. Many students were weak at these tasks, especially the latter task, suggesting that such students have a fragile grasp of skills that are a prerequisite for problem-solving.},
    Acmid = {1041673},
    Address = {New York, NY, USA},
    Author = {Lister, Raymond and Adams, Elizabeth S. and Fitzgerald, Sue and Fone, William and Hamer, John and Lindholm, Morten and McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Sepp{\"a}l{\"a}, Otto and Simon, Beth and Thomas, Lynda},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Doi = {10.1145/1041624.1041673},
    Issn = {0097-8418},
    Issue = {4},
    Journal = {SIGCSE Bulletin},
    Month = {June},
    Numpages = {32},
    Pages = {119--150},
    Publisher = {ACM},
    Title = {A multi-national study of reading and tracing skills in novice programmers},
    Url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1041624.1041673},
    Volume = {36},
    Year = {2004},
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  • S. Fincher, M. Petre, J. Tenenberg, K. Blaha, D. Bouvier, T. Chen, D. Chinn, S. Cooper, A. Eckerdal, H. Johnson, R. McCartney, A. Monge, J. E. Moström, K. Power, M. Ratcliffe, A. Robins, D. Sanders, L. Schwartzman, B. Simon, C. Stoker, A. Elliot Tew, and T. VanDeGrift, “A multi-national, multi-institutional study of student-generated software designs.” , p. 20–27.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{fincher.2004.a,
    Author = {Fincher, Sally and Petre, Marian and Tenenberg, Josh and Blaha, Ken and Bouvier, Dennis and Chen, Tzu-Yi and Chinn, Donald and Cooper, Stephen and Eckerdal, Anna and Johnson, Hubert and McCartney, Robert and Monge, Alvaro and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Power, Kris and Ratcliffe, Mark and Robins, Anthony and Sanders, Dean and Schwartzman, Leslie and Simon, Beth and Stoker, Carol and Elliot Tew, Allison and VanDeGrift, Tammy},
    Crossref = {koli.2004.a},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Pages = {20--27},
    Title = {A multi-national, multi-institutional study of student-generated software designs}}
  • S. Fincher, M. Petre, J. Tenenberg, K. Blaha, D. Bouvier, T. Chen, D. Chinn, S. Cooper, A. Eckerdal, H. Johnson, R. McCartney, A. Monge, J. E. Moström, K. Power, M. Ratcliffe, A. Robins, D. Sanders, L. Schwartzman, B. Simon, C. Stoker, A. Elliot Tew, and T. VanDeGrift, “Cause for alarm?: a multi-national, multi-institutional study of student-generated software designs,” Computing Laboratory, University of Kent, Canterbury, 16–04, 2004.
    [Bibtex]
    @techreport{fincher.2004.b,
    Abstract = {This paper reports a multi-national, multi-institutional study to investigate Computer Science students' understanding of software design and software design criteria. Students were recruited at two levels: those termed 'first competency' programmers, and those completing their Bachelor degrees. The study, including participants from 21 institutions over the academic year 2003/4, aimed to examine students' ability to generate software designs, to elicit students' understanding and valuation of key design activities, and to examine whether students at different stages in their undergraduate education display different understanding of software design. Differences were found in particpants' recognition of ambiguity in requirements; in their use of formal (and semi-formal) design representation and in their prioritisation of design criteria.  },
    Author = {Fincher, Sally and Petre, Marian and Tenenberg, Josh and Blaha, Ken and Bouvier, Dennis and Chen, Tzu-Yi and Chinn, Donald and Cooper, Stephen and Eckerdal, Anna and Johnson, Hubert and McCartney, Robert and Monge, Alvaro and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Power, Kris and Ratcliffe, Mark and Robins, Anthony and Sanders, Dean and Schwartzman, Leslie and Simon, Beth and Stoker, Carol and Elliot Tew, Allison and VanDeGrift, Tammy},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Institution = {Computing Laboratory, University of Kent, Canterbury},
    Number = {16--04},
    Title = {Cause for alarm?: A multi-national, multi-institutional study of student-generated software designs},
    Year = {2004},
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  • R. McCartney, J. E. Moström, K. Sanders, and O. Seppälä, “Questions, annotations, and institutions: observations from a study of novice programmers.” , p. 11–19.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mccartney.2004.a,
    Author = {McCartney, Robert and Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Sanders, Kate and Sepp{\"a}l{\"a}, Otto},
    Crossref = {koli.2004.a},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Pages = {11--19},
    Title = {Questions, Annotations, and Institutions: observations from a study of novice programmers}}
  • J. E. Moström, “Using concurrent constructs in an authoring environment for teaching,” licentiate PhD Thesis, 2002.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{mostrom.2002.b,
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Month = {February},
    School = {Ume{\aa} University, Sweden},
    Title = {Using Concurrent Constructs in an Authoring Environment for Teaching},
    Type = {licentiate},
    Year = {2002}}
  • J. E. Moström and D. A. Carr, “Educator’s use of concurrency when describing educational simulations,” in Ppig’14 – fourteenth annual workshop of the psychology of programming interest group, 2002, p. 128–140.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mostrom.2002.a,
    Abstract = {In this article, we report on an investigation into how educators describe the design of three software systems. We have been especially interested in how they describe events that are concurrent, as we believe support for concurrency will be required of an educational software authoring system. Their descriptions of concurrent processes can then be used to design the authoring system to ``naturally'' support concurrent programming.
    Almost all participants in our investigation used concurrency as a part of their description. No one seemed to think that this was difficult. In addition, we observed that the educators frequently thought in terms of objects. These results suggest that any authoring environment targeted at teaching should include support for concurrency and objects. },
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Carr, David A.},
    Booktitle = {PPIG'14 -- Fourteenth Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Editor = {Kuljis, Jasna and Baldwin, Lynne and Scoble, Rosa},
    Pages = {128--140},
    Rating = {2},
    Title = {Educator's Use of Concurrency When Describing Educational Simulations},
    Year = {2002},
    Bdsk-File-1 = {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}}
  • J. E. Moström and D. Carr, “Teachers, teaching and computers,” in Stimdi’98, 1998.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mostrom.1998.a,
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Carr, David},
    Booktitle = {STIMDI'98},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Title = {Teachers, teaching and computers},
    Url = {http://www.stimdi.se/},
    Year = {1998},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.stimdi.se/}}
  • J. E. Moström and D. Carr, “Programming paradigms and program comprehension by novices,” in Ppig’10 – tenth annual workshop of the psychology of programming interest group, 1998, pp. 117-127.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{mostrom.1998.b,
    Author = {Mostr{\"o}m, Jan Erik and Carr, David},
    Booktitle = {PPIG'10 -- Tenth Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group},
    Date-Added = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Date-Modified = {2020-03-22 21:32:03 +0100},
    Editor = {Domingue, John and Mulholland, Paul},
    Pages = {117-127},
    Publisher = {The Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, UK},
    Title = {Programming Paradigms and Program Comprehension by Novices},
    Year = {1998}}
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